Bariatric surgery was named in 1953, after the Greek word “βάρΟς” for weight, when Varco first attempted to treat severe obesity with a bypass of the small intestine. Since then, the field has expanded to control diseases that include type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In 1995, Dr. Walter Pories and his research team published an article titled “Who would have thought it? An operation proves to be the most effective therapy for adult-onset diabetes mellitus”. Since then, evidence has accumulated showing that weight-loss surgery can cure/improve several metabolic diseases, especially adult onset or Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Obesity is tough to combat using behavioral interventions, with studies showing only moderate weight loss and frequent weight regain. Many diabetes patients struggle to control blood sugar and other metabolic disorders, despite a wide range of available pharmacologic options. Metabolic surgery is designed to benefit patients with type 2 diabetes, in whom obesity is often a major underlying factor.
The term "metabolic surgery" indicates a surgical approach whose primary intent is the control of metabolic alterations/hyperglycemia in contrast to "bariatric surgery," conceived as a mere weight-reduction therapy. Metabolic patients tend to be older, male, have a lower BMI, and have diabetes. Bariatric patients tend to be younger, female, have BMIs double the ideal weight for height, and have an average of three to four obesity-associated co-morbid conditions such as pre-diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, arthritis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Metabolic surgery is defined as a set of gastrointestinal operations (such as sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-n-Y gastric bypass) performed with the intent to treat diabetes and other metabolic dysfunctions, which include obesity.
In 2009 the American Society for Bariatric Surgery (ASBS) changed its name to the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) to promote information on the beneficial effects of surgeries for weight loss in treating metabolic diseases, especially Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) .
So, if you're having weight-loss surgery primarily to treat diabetes or pre-diabetes, or even if you aren't having surgery for that specific reason, you still might want to inform your co-workers or any judgmental extended family members that, "I'm having metabolic surgery next week, so I'll be taking a few days off to recoup."