I was not commenting on the effects of sugar alcohol, and xylitol. Also thank you for posting peer reviewed evidence as far too many people don't understand the importance of peer review. I always read real research ( peer reviewed), and never get sucked into the fitness woo( pseudoscience), and bro science. My advise also comes from my surgeons, and an outstanding registered dietitian, and not a nutritionist as nutritionist is not a professional title or actually certification. Net carbs does not have any actually scientific backing, and was created for marketing. There is no standard for how net carbs are counted on packaging or printed. All the current research does support the concept of net carbs. While xylitol for example has little effect on blood sugar, many packages use sugar alcohol as their reason to off set carbs in their net carbs calculation. That is very bad, and can be dangerous for some with diabetes. There is a reason net carbs don't appear on the nutrition labels. That's because it is not a regulated term by the FDA. It's a made up term by food manufacturers. It's also important to understand not all sugar alcohols are equal. Some do raise blood sugar. So how does the lay person know which raise blood sugar, and which don't? How do you calculate the net carbs not knowing if the sugar alcohol in that product has a higher glycemic index? You also need to be careful subtracting fiber in some products. Should someone subtract fiber to figure out net carbs? Well if they do that, and eat protein bars they need to be careful. Most protein bars use a form of fiber isomalto-oligosaccharides(IMO). IMO is highly processed and barely a fiber. On the glycemic index it is also equivalent to grapefruit or apple juice. I wouldn't call either of those low glycemic index. IMO also has 2 calories per gram. That counts for something. The point of my post is you need to be very careful with net carbs. You seem informed, and as such my post was directed at you, but it was for people who may just think net carbs printed on packages are what they can go by. It's much safer to count all carbs, and more important calories.